Discharge coefficient of an estuarine entrance by Scott L. Boley

Cover of: Discharge coefficient of an estuarine entrance | Scott L. Boley

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  • Estuaries.

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Statementby Scott Lyman Boley.
The Physical Object
Pagination[11], 83 leaves, bound :
Number of Pages83
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL15519891M

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DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT MEASUREMENTS FIGURE 2 Pinning of the conical holes. ends to provide a mounting surface for 2 end-plates. The orifice plate was mounted on the end of high-pressure plenum that in-terfaced with the cross-flow channel and the opposite end-plate accommodated the inlet piping.

A honeycomb flow straightener. Discharge coefficient of an estuarine entrance Public Deposited. Analytics × Add Cited by: 1. /2gH. The coefficient of contraction is usually given as about, i.e., the area of the contracted vein is approximately 8 of the area of the orifice, varying as the coefficient of dis-charge.

The coefficient of discharge is usually given by the text books as (the mean of a large number of experiments), But. The profiles of Cs, Cs, Ru, Ce, 95 Zr Nb and the Cs Cs ratio in a sediment core and their discharge patterns from the Windscale Nuclear Plant have been used to determine the net sedimentation rate on an estuarine inter-tidal bank.

The use of multi-radionuclide and Cs Cs ratio profiles suggest that previous single radionuclide profiles which have been used for Cited by: the discharge coefficients were constant varied with meter design.

The standard orifice plate does not follow the general trend in the discharge coefficient curve that the other flow meters do; instead as the Re decreases, the C value increases to a maximum before sharply dropping off.

Several graphs demonstrating the varying relationships andCited by: River-water / Sea -water Ion Ratios Two major factors: •Na +/K +difference reflects lower affinity of marine rocks for sodium, as compared to potassium (ocean is a is less effective sink for sodium) •Ca 2+ /Mg 2+ difference reflects preferential removal of calcium in the ocean as biogenic calcite (ocean is a is more effective sink for calcium).

Saltwater intrusion in the Changjiang Estuary is mainly controlled by the river discharge and tide (Shen et al.,Wu et al.,Li et al.,Zhu et al.,Qiu et al., ) but is also influenced by wind (Li et al., ), topography (Li, et al., ), river basin and estuarine projects (Zhu et al.,Qiu and Zhu, ) and.

Marine Chemistry. Volume20 MarchPages20 MarchPages In a nozzle or other constriction, the discharge coefficient (also known as coefficient of discharge or efflux coefficient) is the ratio of the actual discharge to the theoretical discharge, i.e., the ratio of the mass flow rate at the discharge end of the nozzle to that of an ideal nozzle which expands an identical working fluid from the same initial conditions to the same exit pressures.

The activities of naturally occurring radium isotopes ( Ra and Ra) in estuarine water were measured downstream of the dam constructed in the Nakdong River, sampling of surface waters for radium, silicate, and suspended solid (SS) analyses was conducted at 18 stations during three periods (JulyApriland June ).

The discharge coefficient is a dimensionless number used to characterise the flow and pressure loss behaviour of nozzles and orifices in fluid systems. Orifices and nozzles are typically used to deliberately reduce pressure, restrict flow Discharge coefficient of an estuarine entrance book to measure flow rate.

This article gives typical values of the discharge coefficient for common orifice and nozzle designs. The Seine estuary, as many north-eastern Atlantic Ocean estuarine ecosystems (Goberville et al., ), is going through a process of ‘marinisation’.The time period – was characterised by a significantly lower discharge of the Seine river (Dauvin and Pezy, ), resulting in an increase of salinity up to 5 in the estuarine boxes (Bacq et al., ).The salinity in the marine.

BureauofStandardsJournalofResearch [vol.s Page tsontheresultsforflangetaps sforpipetaps tsontheresultsforpipetaps XX. of the culvert entrance. For certain entrance geometries the discharge coefficient is obtained by multiplying a base coefficient by an adjustment factor such as.

k, or k. If this procedure results in a discharge coefficient greater thana coefficient of should be used as a limiting value in com.

Assuming an entrance loss coefficient, ke, of (square-edged inlet with headwall, Normann et al., ), a Mannings n of for the culvert, and using the Borda-Carnot expres- sion (Equation ) to describe exit loss, the upstream flow depth is ft.

The discharge coefficient of both expanded holes was found to be higher than of the cylindrical hole, particularly at low pressure ratios and with a hole entrance side crossflow applied.

The effect of the additional layback on the discharge coefficient is negligible. (A,D,G,J) Time series of salinity and (B,E,H,K) wavelet power spectrum of the time series for the estuary entrance (P1, top 2 panels) and near estuary limit (P4, bottom 2 panels), during the high discharge – period for the old (A,B,G,H) and for the new (D,E,J,K) jetty configurations.

Thick contour line enclosed regions of greater than. The following assumptions were made for this plot: current reversal occurs only seaward of Beaver, the ratio of tidal to river flow currents at the estuary entrance is 5 (corresponding to average river discharge of m 3 s −1 and average tidal transport amplitude of 37, m 3 s −1 at the estuary entrance), and tidal currents decrease.

Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science,Vol. 1,DOI: /B Author's personal copy 82 Classification of Estuarine Circulation. The obtained bottom drag coefficient ranged from × 10 −3 to × 10 −3 at different positions along two cross‐channel transects each 4 km long and 2 to 14 m deep.

The maximum drag coefficient is found in the shallowest water near the banks of the estuary, while the minimum values occur between 9 and 12 m in the center of the channel. @article{osti_, title = {Discharge coefficient measurements of film-cooling holes with expanded exits}, author = {Gritsch, M and Schulz, A and Wittig, S}, abstractNote = {This paper presents the discharge coefficients of three film-cooling hole geometries tested over a wide range of flow conditions.

The hole geometries include a cylindrical hole and two holes with a diffuser-shaped exit. Scott L. Boley has written: 'Discharge coefficient of an estuarine entrance' -- subject(s): Estuaries.

It has been experimentally found that there is some loss of head at the entrance of the mouthpiece, depending upon the type of orifice. This loss of head, sometimes, reduces the coefficient of discharge by a small amount (up to ).

But, for all practical purposes, the value of coefficient of discharge is taken as When the material is thinner than the orifice diameter, with sharp edges, a coefficient of should be used.

For square-edged entrance conditions the generic orifice equation can be simplified: Q 0 6A (2gH) 3. 78D2H () When the material is thicker than the orifice diameter a coefficient of should be used.

If the. Published information on the discharge coefficient of film cooling holes is classified in terms of the hole geometry, the external flow conditions at inlet and outlet, and the method of evaluation. This may be either theoretical or experimental.

The discharge equation results from writing the energy and continuity equations for the reach between these two sections, designated sections.

and 3 on figure. 1: Q=CA,J2g (ah+a, z-h,) in which (1) &= discharge, C=coefficient of discharge, A,=gross. area of section 3. Often surface water flow within an estuarine system is controlled by hydraulic structures such as culverts, flap gates, weirs, and/or sluice gates.

These types of structures typically require special treatment within hydrodynamic model codes due to spatial scale limitations and/or physical assumptions (e.g., free surface flow).

The most widely accepted definition of an estuary was proposed by Cameron and Pritchard (). According to their definition, an estuary is (a) a semienclosed and coastal body of water, (b) with free communication to the ocean, and (c) within which ocean water is diluted by freshwater derived from land.

A contaminant is being discharged into an estuary at an estimated rate of 15 kg/day at a location approximately 25 km from the ocean. The following information is available: Average depth - 6 m Average width m Freshwater inflow - 12 m3/sec Average tidal velocity = m/sec Longitudinal dispersion coefficient = m2/sec A.

Write a one-dimensional, net-tidal mass transport equation for. Despite the vast amount of experimental data published, no generally applicable equations are available. Therefore, a new equation is presented for sharp-edged circular side outlets, which can be widely used for calculating the discharge coefficient.

Estuarine water circulation is controlled by the inflow of rivers, the tides, rainfall and evaporation, the wind, and other oceanic events such as an upwelling, an eddy, and ine water circulation patterns are influenced by vertical mixing and stratification, and. The ratio of a actual discharge through an orifice to the theoretical discharge is known as coefficient of discharge.

Mathematically coefficient of discharge, Thus the value of coefficient of discharge varies with the values of and.

An average of coefficient of discharge varies from to The culvert has a diameter of ft. Assume that the entrance loss coefficient is and the exit loss coefficient is Determine the discharge rate in the culvert using: (1) Darcy-Weisbach equation (f = ) (2) Hazen-Williams formula (Ch = ) (3) Assume f =how the computed discharge would be compared with the one in (1).

The flow is assumed laterally homogeneous and the estuary width and depth are assumed to be functions of the longitudinal coordinate only. Required inputs to the model include the salt intrusion length, the ocean boundary salinity, the distribution of the depth-averaged salinity and the freshwater discharge.

The water depth is less than 20 m for most part of the estuary and bays. The total area of water surface in this domain is about 30 km 2. The PRE is the biggest estuary of the Pearl River, which is the second largest river in China and the thirteenth largest river in the world in terms of mean annual water discharge (PRWRC, ).

The β coefficient for sockeye in the IN region was ± (p coefficient ± 1 SE and P-value of the coefficient) in and ± (p. D coefficient of proportionality known as the molecular diffusion coefficient [L2/T] E L distance downstream of discharge point in Equation 5B [L] max maximum salinity at the ocean entrance to an estuary [M/L 3] t time [T].

Values for the entrance loss coefficient, K e, are available in various hydraulic texts including HDS-5, and values range from todepending on the inlet type and configuration. Values for exit loss coefficients, K x, can vary between and For a sudden expansion of flow, the exit loss coefficient is set to   Over 50 years ago, Pritchard () defined the basic dynamics of estuarine circulation and Hansen and Rattray () followed with an analytical solution for the estuarine momentum and salt equations.

These solutions formed the basis for an estuarine classification scheme (Hansen and Rattray ) that is still widely r, the simplifications required to achieve the Hansen and. The weir coefficient, since it is a function of the gravitational constant, is not dimensionless and therefore has different values depending on which unit system you are using.

For example, a weir coefficient (C) of in English Units would be in SI units. But both share the same discharge coefficient (Cd) of. Comparison of the subtidal residual estuarine circulation predicted by the model (U E) with the (left) HR65 scaling and (right) Ri x scaling for evenly spaced locations along the estuary for low river discharge conditions ( m 3 s −1).

The solid lines present the modeled residual estuarine circulation, and the dashed lines present the.Field measurements of velocity and salinity on a transverse cross section of a straight reach in the upper Conwy estuary have been used to evaluate the temporal and intratidal variations of the transverse and vertical shear induced components of the longitudinal dispersion coefficient.The diversity and complexity of estuarine ecosystems is vital to the overall health of Puget Sound.

This summary fact sheet focuses on the current state of estuarine ecosystems in Puget Sound—large river deltas, embayments, their interconnecting beaches, and rocky coasts—and the historical changes that have occurred since the development of the Puget Sound coastline.

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